Neal, D.M., 1997: Reconsidering the phases of disaster. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 15(2), 239-264.

Disaster phases (preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation) have been used by many researchers and emergency personnel throughout the years. However, Neal reveals that there are several issues with designating specific disaster periods. Unique to many other articles, this article provides a concise review of the breakdown of time phases compared throughout the history of disaster research. It evaluates the ways that time phases are used to codify and process research and activities related to disaster management. It also points out the numerous problems with considering disasters as being divided into defined phases. The article suggests that the phases of disasters are actually overlapping, multidimensional, and recurring, and should not be defined as discrete events in time.