Bell, H. M., & Tobin, G. A., 2007: Efficient and effective? The 100-year flood in the communication and perception of flood risk. Environmental Hazards, 7(4), 302-311.

This thesis focuses on the issues with flood communication. The author evaluates four methods used to communicate flood risk, including a 100 year flood, a flood with a 1% likelihood of occurring in a year, a flood with a 26% chance of occurring over 30 years, and a flood risk map obtained through Project Impact. Face-to-face interviews were administered to residents in Wimberley, Texas to assess issues such as uncertainty, perceived need for protection and concern relating to the four different types of flood risk communication mentioned above. Results indicate that the 26% communication method was not as helpful to the participants. Additionally, a large preference was given to concrete references when describing risk. The map scenarios were an effective method of risk communication. The 1% likelihood description conveyed uncertainty more effectively than did the 100-year description, however, it did not encourage motivation or preparedness as effectively.