Parker, D.J., S.M. Tunstall, and S. McCarthy, 2007: New insights into the benefits of flood warnings: Results from a household survey in England and Wales. Environmental Hazards, 7(3), 193-210.

Floods are a major concern in Britain. The flood defense agency in England and Wales has recognized the devastation that floods can cause and have thus engaged a warning system enhancement program, which motivates individuals particularly at risk for a flood to learn about improving flood responses. Although the main goal of this research was to analyze warning systems from an economic standpoint, they found that human-behavioral factors are critical components since the authors’ regression analysis failed to account for the wide range of warning response behavior. Thus, surveys were administered and results show that individuals who have socioeconomic limitations are less likely to receive flood warnings, and that warning lead time is not necessarily a means of evading damage.