Zaalberg, R., C. Midden, A. Meijnders, T. McCalley, 2009: Prevention, Adaptation, and Threat Denial: Flooding Experiences in the Netherlands. Risk Analysis. 29:1759-1778.

The main objective of this study was to better understand if previous flood experience by residents in the Netherlands led to more effective coping mechanisms during future floods. To address this objective, surveys were disseminated to 516 flood victims and non-victims in the Netherlands, evaluating psychological characteristics and past experiences. Results indicate that victims stood out to non-victims in several ways, including: 1) felt stronger emotions, 2) needed more social support, 3) worried more, 4) felt more vulnerable, 5) perceived flood consequences as more severe, and 6) were more likely to take precautionary measures.